Casting is one of the oldest known manufacturing techniques.The Casting manufacturing method is a process used for a molten materials are poured into a mold where they solidify. After solidification, the workpiece is picked up from the mold to make post finishing treatments or for use as a final product. Mainly there are 3 Different Types of Casting Process. Casting process can be utilized to produce a large variety of parts that are used in different industries. Including automotive components, aerospace parts, electronics, mechanical devices, and construction supplies.
With development of modern advances in casting technology,the casting process has led to a broad of specialized casting methods.Die casting, investment casting, plaster casting, and sand casting, each of them provide their own unique fabrication benefits. Checking both the advantages and disadvantages of the casting processes,it can help to select the suited method for desired production.
Sand casting is one of the most simplest types of casting with long history. It is used for producing of large parts.It relies on silica-based materials, such as synthetic or naturally-bonded sand. It was been by filling a molten metal into the mold cavity that has been shaped from natural or synthetic sand. The sand can also be strengthened with the addition of clay.It helps the particles bond closely. Many automotive products, such as engine blocks and housings, are manufactured by sand casting processing. Compared to other mold casting processing, Sand casting is also suitable for smaller order.and can save cost.
Sand Casing Process
Green sand. Moist, bonded sand is packed around a wood or metal patterns, the pattern removed, and molten metal poured into the cavity; when metal solidifes, mold is broken and casting removed Dry sand. Same as above except; core boxes used instead of patterns, sand bonded with a setting binder, and core baked in an oven
Sand Casing Advantages vs Disadvantages of Sand Casting
|Advantages of Sand Casting||Disadvantages of Sand Casting|
|A capacity for casting both ferrous and non-ferrous materials.||Large castings have rough surface finish|
|A low cost for post-casting tooling.||Close tolerances difficult to achieve|
|The ability to fabricate large components.||Long, thin projections not practical|
|Relatively inexpensive production costs, especially in low-volume runs.||Some alloys develop defects|
|Usually limited to smaller parts than possible with green sand|
Investment casting (also known as lost-wax casting) is a casting process that has been practiced for thousands of years. With lost wax process being one of the oldest known metal forming techniques.It is used for metals that are difficult to be machined or fabricated. It is also used for the manufacture of parts that cannot be formed by usual manufacturing techniques like turbine blades or components of airplane that are subjected to high temperatures.Compared to other casting processes, such as die casting or sand casting, it can be an expensive process, but the components that can be produced using investment casting can incorporate intricate contours. In most cases the components are cast near net shape.
Investment casting Process:
Refractory slurry is cast around (or dipped on).A pattern formed from wax or plastic; when slurry hardens, pattern is melted out and mold is baked. When poured metal solidifes, mold is broken away from casting.
Advantages of Investment casting vs Investment casting Disadvantages
|A high degree of accuracy and precise dimensional results.||Size of part limited|
|The ability to create thin-walled parts with complex geometries.||Requires expensive|
|The capacity for casting both ferrous and non-ferrous materials.||Patterns and molds|
|Relatively high-quality surface finish and detail in final components.||High labor costs|
Die casting is a method of molding materials under pressure.Typically, die casting is used in forming iron, aluminum, magnesium, and copper based alloys and non-ferrous metals.It is characterized by the use of a mold cavity to apply high pressure to the molten metal. Molds are usually machined from higher strength alloys. This process is somewhat similar to injection molding.Depending on the type of die casting, a cold chamber die casting machine or a hot chamber die casting machine is required.
Casting equipment and molds are expensive to manufacture. Therefore, die casting processes are generally only used to mass produce a large number of products. It is relatively easy to make die-cast parts. This generally requires only four main steps. The cost per item is very low. Die casting is particularly suitable for the manufacture of large quantities of small and medium-sized castings. Die casting is the most widely used of all casting processes. Compared to other casting techniques, the die-cast surface is flatter. It has a higher dimensional consistency.
Die casting Process
Molten metal is poured into closed steel die under pressures varying from 1500 to 25,000 psi; when the metal solidifes, the die is opened and the casting ejected.
Die casting has 3 different types:Gravity Die Casting. Low pressure die casting.(LPDC) and High pressure die casting.(PDC)
Advantages VS Disadvantages of Die Casting
|Close size and shape tolerances.||High initial die costs|
|High component dimensional consistency and uniform design.||Limited to nonferrous metals|
|A reduced need for post-casting machining.||Size of part limited|
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